Preparei algumas apostilas para ajudarem os alunos na elaboração dos seminários e relatórios finais da disciplina. Essas apostilas estão na forma de "guias rápidos", que podem ser baixados nos seguintes links:

- Guia para elaboração dos seminários

- Guia para elaboração dos relatórios finais

- Guia para análise básica de redes ecológicas


Bancos de dados:

Para a realização dos relatórios finais, os alunos podem usar dados próprios ou da literatura, e também podem consultar bancos de dados online na internet. Abaixo listo algumas excelentes fontes:

  • Frubase
  • Bat-Plant Databases
  • Fig-eating by Vertebrates
  • Neofrug
  • Interaction Web
Leituras fundamentais sobre mutualismos, frugivoria e dispersão:

Augspurger, C. K. 1983. Offspring recruitment around tropical trees: changes in cohort distance with time. Oikos 40:189-196.

Augspurger, C. K. 1984. Seedling survival of tropical tree species: interactions of dispersal distance, light-gaps, and pathogens. Ecology 65:1705-1712.

Bascompte, J., P. Jordano, C. J. Melián, and J. M. Olesen. 2003. The nested assembly of plant-animal mutualistic networks. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences USA 100:9383-9387.

Bascompte, J., P. Jordano, and J. M. Olesen. 2006. Asymmetric coevolutionary networks facilitate biodiversity maintenance. Science 312:431-433.

Boucher, D. H., S. James, and K. H. Keeler. 1982. The ecology of mutualism. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13:315-347.

Connell, J. H. 1971. On the role of natural enemies in preventing competitive exclusion in some marine animals and in rain forest P. J. den Boer and G. R. Gradwell, editors. Dynamics of Populations. Center for Agricultural Publications and Documentation, Wagenigen.

Estrada, A., and T. H. Fleming. 1986. Frugivores and seed dispersal. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht.

Fleming, T. H., and A. Estrada. 1993. Frugivory and seed dispersal: ecological and evolutionary aspects. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Foster, M. S. 1990. Factors influencing bird foraging preferences among conspecific fruit trees. The Condor 92:844-854.

Fuentes, M. 2000. Frugivory, seed dispersal and plant community ecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15:487-488.

Guimarães Jr., P. R., V. Rico-Gray, S. F. Reis, and J. N. Thompson. 2007. Asymmetries in specialization in ant–plant mutualistic networks. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B In press.

Howe, H. F., and J. Smallwood. 1982. Ecology of seed dispersal. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13:201-228.

Janzen, D. H. 1970. Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forests. The American Naturalist 104:501-528.

Jordano, P. 1995. Angiosperm fleshy fruits and seed disperser: a comparative analysis of adaptation and constraints in plant-animal interactions. The American Naturalist 145:163-191.

Jordano, P., J. Bascompte, and J. M. Olesen. 2003. Invariant properties in coevolutionary networks of plant–animal interactions. Ecology Letters 6:69-81.

Jordano, P., C. García, J. A. Godoy, and J. L. García-Castaño. 2007. Differential contribution of frugivores to complex seed dispersal patterns. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences USA 104:3278–3282.

Levin, S. A., H. C. Muller-Landau, R. Nathan, and J. Chave. 2003. The ecology and evolution of seed dispersal: a theoretical perspective. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 34.

Levine, J. M., and D. Murrell. 2003. Community-level consequences of seed dispersal patterns. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 34.

Lewinsohn, T. M., P. I. Prado, P. Jordano, J. Bascompte, and J. M. Olesen. 2006. Structure in plant/animal interaction assemblages. Oikos 113:174-184.

Strauss, S. Y., and R. E. Irwin. 2004. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of multispecies plant-animal interactions. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 35:435–466.

Van der Pijl, L. 1973. Principles of dispersion in higher plants. Springer Verlag, New York.


Leituras mais gerais sobre ecologia, mutualismos e forrageio:

Begon, M., C. R. Townsend, and J. L. Harper. 2006. Ecology: from individuals to ecosystems. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

Emlen, J. M. 1966. The role of time and energy in food preference. The American Naturalist 100:611-617.

MacArthur, R. H., and E. R. Pianka. 1966. On optimal use of a patchy environment. The American Naturalist 100:603-609.

McIntosh, R. P. 1986. Background of ecology: concept and theory. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Perry, G., and E. R. Pianka. 1997. Animal foraging: past, present and future. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12:360-364.

Pyke, G. H. 1984. Optimal foraging theory: a critical review. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 15:523-575.

Pyke, G. H., H. R. Pulliam, and E. L. Charnov. 1977. Optimal foraging: a selective review of theory and tests. The Quarterly Review of Biology 52:137-154.

Root, R. B. 1967. The niche exploitation pattern of the blue-gray gnatcatcher. Ecological Monographs 37:317-350.

Schoener, T. W. 1971. Theory of feeding strategies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 2:369-404.

Leituras sobre frugivoria e dispersão em táxons específicos:

Dyer, L. A., and A. D. N. Palmer. 2004. Piper: a model genus for studies of phytochemistry, ecology, and evolution. Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York.

Fleming, T. H. 1982. Foraging strategies of plant-visiting bats. Pages 287-326 in T. H. Kunz, editor. Ecology of Bats. Plenum Press, New York.

Fleming, T. H. 1986. Opportunism versus specialization: the evolution of feeding strategies in frugivorous A. Estrada and T. H. Fleming, editors. Frugivores and Seed Dispersal. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht.

Fleming, T. H., and V. J. Sosa. 1994. Effects of nectarivorous and frugivorous mammals on reproductive success of plants. Journal of Mammalogy 75:845-851.

Jordano, P. 1995. Frugivore-mediated selection on fruit and seed size: birds and St. Lucies’s cherry, Prunus mahaleb. Ecology 76:2627-2639.

Kalko, E. K. V., and M. Condon. 1998. Echolocation, olfaction, and fruit display: how bats find fruit of flagellichorous cucurbits. Functional Ecology 12:364-372.

Kalko, E. K. V., E. A. Herre, and C. O. Handley. 1996. The relation of fig fruit syndromes to fruit-eating bats in the New and Old World tropics. Journal of Biogeography 23:565-576.

Korine, C., and E. K. V. Kalko. 2005. Fruit detection and discrimination by small fruit-eating bats (Phyllostomidae). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 59.

Mello, M. A. R., N. O. Leiner, P. R. Guimarães Jr., and P. Jordano. 2005. Size-based fruit selection of Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae) by bats of the genus Artibeus (Phyllostomidae) in a Restinga area, southeastern Brazil. Acta Chiropterologica 7:179-182.

Mello, M. A. R., and F. C. Passos. 2008. Frugivoria em morcegos S. M. Pacheco, C. E. L. Esberard, and R. V. Marques, editors. Morcegos no Brasil: biologia, sistemática, ecologia e conservação. Editora Armazém Digital, Porto Alegre.

Mello, M. A. R., G. M. Schittini, P. Selig, and H. G. Bergallo. 2004. Seasonal variation in the diet of the bat Carollia perspicillata (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in an Atlantic Forest area in southeastern Brazil. Mammalia 68:49-55.

Mello, M. A. R., G. M. Schittini, P. Selig, and H. G. Bergallo. 2004. A test of the effects of climate and fruiting of Piper species (Piperaceae) on reproductive patterns of the bat Carollia perspicillata (Phyllostomidae). Acta Chiropterologica 6:309-318.

Mello, M.A.R., Kalko, E.K.V., Silva, W.R. 2008. Movements of the bat Sturnira lilium and its effectiveness as a seed disperser of Solanaceae in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 24:225-228.

Mello, M.A.R., Kalko, E.K.V., Silva, W.R. in press. Diet and abundance of the bat Sturnira lilium (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in a Brazilian Montane Atlantic Forest. Journal of Mammalogy.

Mikich, S. B., G. V. Bianconi, B. H. L. N. Maia, and S. D. Teixeira. 2003. Attraction of the fruit-eating bat Carollia perspicillata to Piper gaudichaudianum essential oil. Journal of Chemical Ecology 29:2379-2383.

Nogueira, M. R., and A. L. Peracchi. 2003. Fig-seed predation by 2 species of Chiroderma: discovery of a new feeding strategy in bats. Journal of Mammalogy 84:225-233.

Whittaker, R. J., and S. H. Jones. 1994. The role of frugivorous bats and birds in the rebuilding of a tropical forest ecosystem, Krakatau, Indonesia. Journal of Biogeography 21:245-258.


Leituras sobre método científico e redação científica:

Ford, E. D. 2004. Scientific method for ecological research. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Keller, D.R., Golley, F.B. 2000. The philosophy of ecology. London: The University of Georgia Press.  

Kuhn, T.S. 1996. The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

McIntosh, R.P. 1986. Background of ecology: concept and theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Popper, K. 2002. The logic of scientific discovery. London: Routledge.

Volpato, G.L. 2003. Publicação científica. Botucatu: Tipomic. 143 p.

Volpato, G.L. 2004. Ciência: da filosofia à publicação. Botucatu: Tipomic. 233 p.

Volpato, G.L. 2007. Bases teóricas para redação científica. Vinhedo: Scripta. 125 p.